Studying Criminal Justice: Degrees at a Glance
Criminal justice is part of the protective services field, which employs people dedicated to protecting individuals and upholding laws. Academic programs in criminal justice can prepare you for careers in law enforcement and correctional administration, although it's important to remember that some positions require substantial on-the-job training.
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) predicted that employment for private detectives and investigators would increase by 21% between 2010 and 2020, which is faster than average. In contrast, the BLS projected that the job outlook for correctional officers, police and detectives (those not working privately) would be slower than average. The number of employed first-line supervisors of police and detectives wasn't expected to change much during the same decade.
|Who Is This Degree For?||Individuals interested in law enforcement and public safety jobs||People preparing for law enforcement roles, administrative positions or enrollment in master's programs|
|Common Career Paths (with approximate median annual salary)||- Police officer ($54,000)*|
- Bailiff ($39,000)*
- Private investigator ($44,000)*
- First-line supervisor of police and detectives (requires additional experience ($78,000))*
| - Correctional treatment specialists ($49,000)* |
- Same as with an associate degree
|Time to Completion||2 years full-time||4 years full-time|
|Common Graduation Requirements||No additional requirements beyond core coursework and general education classes||Internship|
|Prerequisites||High school diploma or GED|| - High school diploma or GED |
- SAT or ACT scores
Source: *U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (May 2011 figures).
Associate Degree in Criminal Justice
Associate programs in criminal justice are often designed for aspiring law enforcement professionals. Some programs can prepare you for certification as a police officer. If you're currently employed in the field, earning an associate degree may enhance your career prospects. Many schools also allow you to transfer credits into bachelor's programs.
Pro and Cons
- If you're interested in law enforcement, police officers earn above-average salaries (median annual wages of $54,000 as of 2011)*
- Online programs are widely available
- Competitors in the job market may only have high school diplomas
- Even with an associate degree, aspiring police officers need to complete training academy programs
- Police and detective positions are projected to see slower-than-average growth (7% from 2010-2020)*
- High risk of on-the-job injury
Source: *U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Common Course Requirements
In most programs, you study state and federal laws, criminal behavior, policing techniques and the U.S. penal system. General education classes are required as well, and some programs culminate in an internship. Additional topics of study can include investigative procedures, criminal profiling and social issues.
Online Degree and Course Info
As a student of criminal justice, you have the option of completing an associate degree program online or taking some classes via distance learning. Your online studies may be similar to those of on-campus programs, and you can usually interact with professors and classmates through online discussion boards. For programs with an internship requirement, you may be able to work with a local law enforcement agency or organization in your area.
Stand Out with This Degree
Good communication skills and an understanding of how people think are essential to law enforcement careers. Taking courses in communications or psychology may help you stand out when applying for a job in the field. It's also beneficial to have some basic knowledge of a foreign language; police officers may interact with people from different ethnic communities.
Bachelor's Degree in Criminal Justice
Bachelor's programs often explore the criminal justice field in more depth than associate programs. Most degree programs offer minors and concentrations, allowing you to specialize your degree and gain more knowledge in the specific field you plan to enter. Bachelor's programs usually take four years to complete.
Many law enforcement and administration positions are open to those who hold either an associate or bachelor's degree. However, some careers do require completion of a bachelor's program, like those of correctional treatment specialists and federal law enforcement agents. If you're interested in the research side of this field, bachelor's-level work can prepare you for enrollment in criminal justice master's programs.
Pros and Cons
- Some federal enforcement positions offer extensive travel opportunities
- You can qualify for positions that involve helping people and saving lives
- Concentrations are available, giving you the ability to customize your studies in the criminal justice area that most interests you
- To qualify for police work or other applied positions in the field, additional training is usually required
- Some jobs demand a high level of physical fitness
- Licensure is required for private detectives and investigators
Common Courses and Requirements
In a criminal justice bachelor's program, you learn why people commit criminal acts, how to prevent illegal activity and how to make ethical judgments in the field. You may explore topics similar to those of associate programs, including criminology, the court system and criminal law. However, bachelor's programs also allow you to choose a concentration, such as juvenile justice, security administration or law enforcement. In addition, internships or field experiences are often required; you might find opportunities with local, state or federal agencies.
Online Degree and Course Info
Bachelor's programs in criminal justice are available in fully online and hybrid formats. Similar to online associate programs, you can view lectures, submit assignments and interact with classmates through course management systems. Online learning might be a good choice if you are employed or have an otherwise busy schedule that prevents you from taking classes on campus. You can expect to cover the same material as campus-based programs.
Getting Ahead with This Degree
Joining student organizations or participating in campus activities may give you an edge on the competition. For example, you might join the Alpha Phi Sigma Criminal Justice Honor Society; membership benefits can include access to industry job postings and professional conferences. You may also consider attending guest lectures or job fairs hosted by your school's criminal justice department.
Strong computer skills are important for many careers in this field, so think about taking information technology or computer science electives. If you're interested in working as a private investigator, gaining familiarity with surveillance equipment can give you a leg up on other job seekers.
Other Degrees to Consider
If you're more interested in forensic work, a bachelor's program in forensic science could be a better choice. These programs include some of the same courses as criminal justice programs, like criminal law and justice administration. However, lab-based classes in forensic technology, evidence analysis, chemistry and biology are a central part of the curricula.
Earning a bachelor's degree in forensic science may prepare you for work as a crime scene investigator or forensic science technician. These professionals gather evidence, analyze samples, consult with other specialists and document their findings. According to the BLS, the number of employed forensic science technicians and crime scene investigators was expected to increase by 19% from 2010-2020, which is higher than the outlook for police officers.